Evaluating protocols and analytical methods for peptide adsorption experiments
1 Division of Chemistry, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5342, USA
2 Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
3 Current address: International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), 4715-330, Braga, Portugal
Biointerphases 2013, 8:20 doi:10.1186/1559-4106-8-20Published: 19 August 2013
This paper evaluates analytical techniques that are relevant for performing reliable quantitative analysis of peptide adsorption on surfaces. Two salient problems are addressed: determining the solution concentrations of model GG–X–GG, X5, and X10 oligopeptides (G = glycine, X = a natural amino acid), and quantitative analysis of these peptides following adsorption on surfaces. To establish a uniform methodology for measuring peptide concentrations in water across the entire GG–X–GG and Xn series, three methods were assessed: UV spectroscopy of peptides having a C-terminal tyrosine, the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay, and amino acid (AA) analysis. Due to shortcomings or caveats associated with each of the different methods, none were effective at measuring concentrations across the entire range of representative model peptides. In general, reliable measurements were within 30% of the nominal concentration based on the weight of as-received lyophilized peptide. In quantitative analysis of model peptides adsorbed on surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data for a series of lysine-based peptides (GGKGG, K5, and K10) on Au substrates, and for controls incubated in buffer in the absence of peptides, suggested a significant presence of aliphatic carbon species. Detailed analysis indicated that this carbonaceous contamination adsorbed from the atmosphere after the peptide deposition. The inferred adventitious nature of the observed aliphatic carbon was supported by control experiments in which substrates were sputter-cleaned by Ar+ ions under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) then re-exposed to ambient air. In contrast to carbon contamination, no adventitious nitrogen species were detected on the controls; therefore, the relative surface densities of irreversibly-adsorbed peptides were calculated by normalizing the N/Au ratios by the average number of nitrogen atoms per residue.